Primary Sources

Treaty Trail: Collections : Primary images related to Treaty Councils; of particular interest are drawings of the participants of the 1855 Treaty Council.

Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, etc., 1855:  Transcription of the Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla on June 9, 1855. The tribes ceded more than 6.4 million acres of land to the United States, reserving their rights to fish, hunt, and gather foods throughout the ceded lands, though they would live on a reservation.


From Treaty Trail, a PDF document containing four key maps:

  1. Current locations of Tribes and federally recognized reservations (2000)
  2. Washington Territory Indian Nations and Tribes (1854)
  3. Northwest Indian Reservations (1890)
  4. The Stevens Treaty Expedition (1855)

From Since Time Immemorial, a map of Washington State Tribal Reservations and Draft Treaty Ceded Areas.